Tag Archives: nonprofit

Dynamics of International Giving: How Heuristics Shape Individual Donor Preferences

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. State restrictions on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have become increasingly pervasive across the globe. Although this crackdown has been shown to have a negative impact on public funding flows, we know little about how it affects private philanthropy. How does information about crackdown abroad, as well as organizational attributes of nonprofits, affect individual donors’ willingness to donate internationally? Using a survey experiment, we find that learning about repressive NGO environments increases generosity in that already-likely donors are willing to donate substantially more to legally besieged nonprofits. This generosity persists when mediated by two organizational-level heuristics: NGO issue areas and main funding sources. We discuss the implications of our results on how nonprofits can use different framing appeals to increase fundraising at a time when traditional public donor funding to such organizations is decreasing.

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Activating Community Resilience: The Emergence of COVID-19 Funds Across the United States

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. This article draws upon concepts of community resilience to explore the antecedents of community philanthropic organizations’ response to COVID-19. Although the pandemic is a global threat, responses have been local. We test a model of community resilience activation in the context of the emergence of local COVID-19 funds. We find that a philanthropic organization’s capacity to act in a crisis and respond to the needs of the community depends on the stock of community capitals and organizational capacity. The importance of economic, cultural, and political factors in predicting the emergence of a fund raises important questions about disparities in resilience along class and race lines and the role of political ideology in shaping perceptions of crises. Our research contributes to our understanding of community philanthropic organizations’ capacity to activate community resources during a crisis.

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An Alternative Framing of Organ Donation Registration: The Collective Donor Behavioral Model

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Notwithstanding the prevalent use of donor registration prediction models grounded by the theory of planned behavior (TPB), registration behavior continues to remain low. A collective donor behavior (CDB) model underpinned by social exchange theory is introduced and its predictive ability is tested against a baseline TPB model using an online survey of adults (n = 1,055). Individuals who indicated they were not registered donors were contacted 3 months later to track their registration status. The CDB model was found to explain 45% of variance in registration intentions which was comparable in performance to TPB. Normative commitment was found to be strongly associated with registration intentions, and both institutional trust and trust in others fostered this commitment. The CDB model provides different insights on how to increase donor registration intentions. Namely, interventions need to facilitate individual positive experiences with institutions such as hospitals and strengthen social inclusion perceptions.

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Automated Coding Using Machine Learning and Remapping the U.S. Nonprofit Sector: A Guide and Benchmark

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. This research developed a machine learning classifier that reliably automates the coding process using the National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities as a schema and remapped the U.S. nonprofit sector. I achieved 90% overall accuracy for classifying the nonprofits into nine broad categories and 88% for classifying them into 25 major groups. The intercoder reliabilities between algorithms and human coders measured by kappa statistics are in the “almost perfect” range of .80 to 1.00. The results suggest that a state-of-the-art machine learning algorithm can approximate human coders and substantially improve researchers’ productivity. I also reassigned multiple category codes to more than 439,000 nonprofits and discovered a considerable amount of organizational activities that were previously ignored. The classifier is an essential methodological prerequisite for large-N and Big Data analyses, and the remapped U.S. nonprofit sector can serve as an important instrument for asking or reexamining fundamental questions of nonprofit studies. The working directory with all data sets, source codes, and historical versions are available on GitHub (https://github.com/ma-ji/npo_classifier).

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Are You Ready: Financial Management, Operating Reserves, and the Immediate Impact of COVID-19 on Nonprofits

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Scholars and practitioners have argued that effective financial management, particularly the development of operating reserves, can help nonprofits survive economic shocks. The COVID-19 pandemic, which has had a significant impact on the nonprofit sector, provides an opportunity to test whether nonprofits have followed that recommendation, and if so, whether nonprofits with operating reserves were better prepared for the pandemic. Using data from an original survey of more than 600 nonprofit human service and arts organizations, administered when most states had stay-at-home restrictions, we show that most nonprofits experienced an immediate impact on their programs and financing. Yet, those nonprofits with more reserves were less likely to reduce operating hours, lose staff, or experience difficulty acquiring supplies or vendor services. Our study provides rare empirical data on the benefits of operating reserves for nonprofits. Our results also confirm that arts and culture nonprofits were more severely affected than human service nonprofits.

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Businesses Venturing Into the Social Domain During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Motivation and Ability Perspective

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Many businesses have joined governments and nonprofit organizations to serve the social needs under the tremendous pressure of Covid-19. We propose that businesses that expanded into the social domain during the Covid-19 crisis differ significantly from each other and vary extensively in value creation. We extend the motivation and ability framework to derive a typology of businesses under this situation and conceptualize value creation behaviors in both a free market and a monopolistic market with the governments as the buyer.

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Civil Society and COVID in China: Responses in an Authoritarian Society

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Can civil society play a useful role in response to a pandemic like COVID-19 in a one-party state? We explore that issue based on the role of civil society and philanthropy in responding to COVID in China, where a large and innovative—and restricted—civil society and philanthropy sector has developed. Our preliminary findings are that while restrictive policies toward civil society significantly limit the role that civil society organizations and philanthropy can have in response to the pandemic, civil society still shows strength and vitality in emergency service, funding, volunteering, mutual aid, in-kind donations, and even policy advocacy. While the prospects for civil society in China are uncertain because of political restrictions before and during the COVID crisis, civil society continues to build capacity and show its capabilities to Chinese citizens and its governance institutions.

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Leadership and Governance in Times of Crisis: A Balancing Act for Nonprofit Boards

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. How has the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the roles of nonprofit boards? We reflect critically on the leadership and management activities of boards to understand the implications of the current crisis on governance. Employing a contingency approach to governance, we present a model of boards of directors’ leadership and management roles under four governance configurations as organizations navigate through the stages of the pandemic. We suggest that organizations with governance configurations that are more suited to predictable environments will generally experience greater shifts between management and leadership activities as they move through the stages of the COVID-19 crisis.

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Combating COVID-19 Together: China’s Collaborative Response and the Role of Business Associations

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Drawing on data from Zhejiang Province, this study explores China’s collaborative response to COVID-19 in which business associations played a critical role. Consistent with existing literature on cross-sector collaboration and nonprofit contributions in extreme events, the preliminary findings of this study carry significant implications for future research to advance new knowledge. Specifically, two important next steps of future research that hold considerable promise—examining the overwhelming impact of the institutional environment on collaboration and accounting for the complex mechanisms in which multiple components of collaboration create outcomes through a configurational approach—emerged from this study. In addition, the practical implications of these findings are highlighted.

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No Global Crisis of Trust: A Longitudinal and Multinational Examination of Public Trust in Nonprofits

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Recent high-profile scandals suggest the potential for a crisis of trust in charities, which could have negative consequences for the nonprofit sector as a whole. Although widespread, this crisis narrative has not yet been subjected to empirical examination. To assess the extent to which public trust has changed over time, we examined trust in nongovernmental organizations within 31 countries over nine consecutive years using data from the Edelman Trust Barometer (N = 294,176). Multilevel analysis revealed that, after allowing for differences in absolute levels of trust and trends across countries, there was actually a small increase in global trust in the nonprofit sector. This increase was sharper among men, people aged below 40 years, and people with higher education, income, and media consumption. Overall, we find no evidence of a crisis of trust in nonprofits; scandals within individual organizations have not affected sectoral trust.

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Testing Social Enterprise Models Across the World: Evidence From the “International Comparative Social Enterprise Models (ICSEM) Project”

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. In response to the large number of definitions of social enterprise (SE), various works have sought to cope with such diversity through SE typologies. Many of them are however country-specific and only very few of them are built upon solid theoretical foundations. To overcome these weaknesses, Defourny and Nyssens had put forward, in a previous article, some fundamentals for an international typology, including four SE models. The objective of the present article is to test the existence of these models on the basis of a data set covering 721 SEs and resulting from a survey carried out in 43 countries. More precisely, the statistical exploitation of the data set combined multiple factorial analysis with hierarchical cluster analysis. It appears that the existence of three of the four SE models—namely the social-business model, the social-cooperative model and the entrepreneurial nonprofit model—is strongly supported by the empirical analysis in almost all surveyed countries.

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The Big Bird Gets the Worm? How Size Influences Social Networking by Charitable Organizations

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Current evidence suggests that nonprofits’ use of Twitter is not strongly related to organizational size, unlike other technological developments. However, this evidence is primarily based on studies of large nonprofit organizations. This study uses a random sample of charities, stratified by size, to present evidence that organization size is a significant factor in multiple dimensions of social media use: the percentage of charities owning a Twitter handle, activity on the site, and popularity within the charities’ network. Many charities are using Twitter, but larger charities are making more effective use of the platform to connect to other organizations. The very largest charities exhibit an overwhelming popularity effect in the network, whereas small charities are notably less active than their larger counterparts. Besides the substantive findings, we further demonstrate the methodological potential of using exponential random graph modeling to gain a deeper understanding of the characteristics of nonprofits’ social media networks.

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Combining Nonprofit Service and Advocacy: Organizational Structures and Hybridity

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Facilitating political engagement is a vital function of the nonprofit sector. While some public charities engage in political activities like policy advocacy, many focus exclusively on their core service mission. Current nonprofit research does not adequately theorize the inherent tension between service and advocacy activities. We conceptualize nonprofits engaging in service and advocacy as hybrid organizations that incorporate two distinct logics. Using the organizational hybridity literature, and empirical data from a survey of Massachusetts nonprofits, we examine how the logics of service provision and political advocacy are combined and managed across a sample of nonprofits. We find that nonprofit service–advocacy hybrids adopt an array of organizational structures to accommodate these logics, including decoupled, segregated, outsourced, and blended structures. Our results suggest that compartmentalization may be a common strategy and that certain organizational structures are related to the presence of mission integration, funding reliance, competition, and advocacy objectives.

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Nudging Charitable Giving: What (If Anything) Is Wrong With It?

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Nudging techniques can help charities to increase donations. In this article, we first provide a systematic overview of prototypical nudges that promote charitable giving. Second, we argue that plenty of the ethical objections raised against nudges, such as the exploitation of power they involve and the arguably intrusive and deceptive nature, are not specific to nudging itself. Carefully designing nudges can help to avoid these worries. Third, given that most concerns boil down to the worry that nudges infringe on people’s autonomy, we analyze when this could nevertheless be justified. We differentiate between perfect duties, imperfect duties, and supererogatory acts and argue that nudges are (a) morally permissible (even when they violate autonomy) when it comes to perfect duties and can (b) provide the best available strategy when it comes to imperfect duties. That said, we also analyze the conditions under which nudging charitable giving is impermissible.

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Are the Wages Paid by Non-Profits Sensitive to Volunteering? Evidence From France

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Volunteers and paid staff frequently work alongside each other in nonprofit organizations. Nevertheless, the possible impact of volunteering on the wages of the paid staff has hardly ever been investigated due to the scarcity of data suited to such research. Based on the matching of two French databases and using several indicators relating to volunteering, this article examines the relationship between volunteering and wages by carrying out investigations that differentiate between employees depending on their position in the socio-occupational hierarchy and the field of activity of their organizations. The results confirm the value of such an approach based on disaggregated data by revealing the diversity of situations. This diversity ranges from some cases where no relationship is observed between volunteering and wages to others where there is a negative relationship and even in a few cases, a positive one.

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The Good-looking Giver Effect: The Relationship Between Doing Good and Looking Good

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Evidence exists that beautiful is seen as good: the halo effect wherein more physically attractive people are perceived to be good, and the reverse halo that good is seen as beautiful. Yet research has rarely examined the evidence linking the beautiful with the good, or the reverse, without the halo effect. We examine the relationship between physical attractiveness (beauty) and giving behaviors (good), where ratings of attractiveness are independent of giving behaviors. We use three U.S. datasets: (a) a nationally representative sample of older adults (NSHAP), (b) a nationally representative longitudinal study of adolescents (ADD Health), and (c) the 54-year Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), to present evidence that these two characteristics (attractiveness and giving) are indeed correlated without the halo effect. We find a ‘good-looking giver’ effect–that more physically attractive people are more likely to engage in giving behaviors, and vice versa. Thus, in ecologically valid real-world samples, people who do good are also likely to look good.

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Do U.S. Faith-Based Social Service Organizations Resist Collaboration? Examining the Role of Religiosity and Operational Capacity in Interorganizational Partnerships

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Although nonprofit collaboration is commonplace, recent research suggests that faith-based organizations (FBOs) are less likely to collaborate than other nonprofits. This study builds on prior FBO, collaboration, and nonprofit capacity research to examine the influence of religiosity and operational capacity on FBOs’ within- and cross-sector partnerships. Findings from a survey with 197 FBOs across the United States reveal a complex picture of how religiosity and operational capacity influence FBO collaboration. More specifically, staff religiosity was positively related to cross-sector partnerships. Service religiosity (i.e., religious elements in staff–client interactions) was negatively associated with collaboration with government agencies. Results also indicated that FBOs with higher operational capacity had more partners in the nonprofit, business, and public sectors. These findings suggest that FBOs generally lack the operational capacity for collaboration and that service religiosity creates additional barriers to it. This article concludes with implications for research in FBOs, interorganizational collaboration, and nonprofit capacity.

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Transacting Business and Transforming Communities: The Mission Statements of Community Foundations Around the Globe

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Analyzing mission statements from 1,420 community foundations, this research aims to determine whether community foundations portray themselves as primarily transactional or transformational in their leadership style. Results indicate that approximately half of the community foundations present themselves as transformational dominant although about a third demonstrate transactional dominance. The well-established leadership categories of transformational and transactional (a) give us a new way to explore community foundations’ roles in their communities, (b) help us better understand the way community foundations perceive themselves and their leadership, and (c) provide a mechanism to assess how community foundations are presenting their missions to their communities. In addition, by examining organizations as the unit of analysis, this research answers long-standing calls in leadership studies to consider levels of analysis beyond the individual.

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Coopetition Among Social Enterprises: A Three-Level Dynamic Motivated by Social and Economic Goals

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. While scholars have analyzed the emergence and characteristics of social enterprises, and their internal tensions between conflicting logics, we have little understanding of the dynamics at the interorganizational level between social enterprises. Based on an in-depth, qualitative study with work integration social enterprises in the secondhand clothes industry, we uncover the dynamics of simultaneous cooperation and competition. Our analysis shows that social enterprises simultaneously—rather than sequentially—engage in coopetitive actions at three levels of action: operational, stakeholder, and environmental interface. At each level, social enterprises engage in different coopetitive actions that do not easily fall under the commercial–social tension usually studied in the social entrepreneurship literature. Social and economic goals motivate both competition and cooperation, but we argue that this plays out differently at each level of coopetition. We conclude with implications for theory and practice.

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