Tag Archives: nvsq

Governance Effectiveness: The Interaction of Ethno-Racial Diversity and Social Capital

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. This research examines the relationship among Board Diversity, Social Capital, and Governance Effectiveness by asking, “does board ethno-racial diversity moderate the relationship between Social Capital and Governance Effectiveness, and if so, how?” Exploring the direct and interacting effects of demographic diversity and Social Capital, and their relation to governing-group effectiveness using a two-sample field survey design, we illustrate whether heterogeneous or homogeneous group compositions amplify or attenuate Governance Effectiveness, and to what degree. Primary analyses find no support for Board Diversity moderating the Social Capital-Governance Effectiveness relationship, with secondary analysis revealing a more complex interaction for Governance Effectiveness, albeit inconsistently, across samples. Our investigation points to the value of social resources in understanding governance as an inherently socially complex activity or capability, predicated on truce or mutual agreement and shaped by the composition and connections of boards.

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly | https://journals.sagepub.com/action/showFeed?ui=0&mi=ehikzz&ai=2b4&jc=nvsb&type=etoc&feed=rss  

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Motivations for Peer-Support Volunteering: Social Identities and Role-Identities as Sources of Motivation

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Motivations for volunteering described by functional theory are loosely related to the types and duration of these activities. The motivating effects of individuals’ social- and role-based identities may need inclusion. Identity theories suggest that entering a specific service activity depends on whether the service benefits a social group with which a person identifies, while persisting in the work depends on rewards and legitimation gained from the role-identity of “volunteer.” Former cardiac patients’ motivations for engaging in peer-support volunteering were explored (n = 84). Respondents’ primary motive for starting this work was to reduce current patients’ anxieties, suggesting identification with cardiac patients in general. Respondents viewed their “volunteer” role-identity as deeply rewarding, promoting long-term involvement. Identification with the sponsoring organization (Mended Hearts) supplied additional benefits, supporting continued involvement. Social- and role-identities help to explain the start and persistence of this type of volunteer work and likely influence other volunteer activities.

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly | https://journals.sagepub.com/action/showFeed?ui=0&mi=ehikzz&ai=2b4&jc=nvsb&type=etoc&feed=rss  

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In Search of Civil Society: Disentangling Associational Practices and Civil Society Conceptions in Germany

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. The historical case study of German associations during World War I highlights the limits of sociability in times of political polarization. At the war’s beginning, German elites supported political associations that welcomed the entire political spectrum, thus radically breaking with associations that had developed along political, social, and religious dividing lines. The article shows how the inclusive sociability that the common cause of the war initially spurred failed to withstand the pressures of mass politics, extreme sociopolitical fragmentation, and the new republican institutions. The discrediting of associations as sources of inclusive sociability paved the path to conscious efforts to educate German citizens and political professionals to the working of democratic systems. The analysis suggests a conceptualization of civil society that relies on explicit strategies, such as political education, to cultivate the political conduct that modern democracies require, replacing the faith in associations as indirect sources of democratic governance.

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly | https://journals.sagepub.com/action/showFeed?ui=0&mi=ehikzz&ai=2b4&jc=nvsb&type=etoc&feed=rss  

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Designing “National Day of Service” Projects to Promote Volunteer Job Satisfaction

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. National Day of Service (NDS) volunteering events have become common, yet little is known about how the design of such events affects volunteer satisfaction. This relationship is important because volunteer satisfaction ensures a strong volunteer base for special events and promotes sustained volunteerism. We explore how the design of NDS projects promotes volunteer job satisfaction. Our approach to the research question is informed by work design theory. Based on interview, participant observation, and focus-group data from an NDS in the Netherlands, the findings suggest that nonprofit organizations can elicit volunteer job satisfaction by designing NDS projects that create a sense of added value, support productivity, and make volunteers feel comfortable. Designing NDS projects that incorporate task significance, symbolic social support, feedback from others, beneficiary contact, task identity, project preparation, physically demanding work, social support, and limited autonomy help to achieve these goals.

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly | https://journals.sagepub.com/action/showFeed?ui=0&mi=ehikzz&ai=2b4&jc=nvsb&type=etoc&feed=rss  

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The Evolving Distribution of Giving in the United States

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. I compute the share of U.S. household giving accounted for by the American tax units donating the largest amounts over the 1960–2012 period from repeated cross-sectional samples of federal income tax returns. The share of donations accounted for by a minority of top donors rose sharply over this period. Donor concentration has risen both because the largest gifts have grown larger and because more households give little or nothing in any given year.

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Which Audiences Engage With Advocacy Groups on Twitter? Explaining the Online Engagement of Elite, Peer, and Mass Audiences With Advocacy Groups

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Gaining an audience on social media is an important goal of contemporary policy advocacy. While previous studies demonstrate that advocacy-dedicated nonprofit organizations—what we refer to as advocacy groups—use different social media tools, we still know little about what specific audiences advocacy groups set out to target on social media, and whether those audiences actually engage with these groups. This study fills this gap, deploying survey and digital trace data from Twitter over a 12-month period for the Australian case. We show that while groups target a variety of audiences online, there are differences between group types in their strategic objectives and the extent to which particular audiences engage with them. Business groups appear to target elite audiences more often compared with citizen and professional groups, whereas citizen groups receive more online engagement from mass and peer audiences.

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I Belong, Therefore, I Give? The Impact of Sense of Belonging on Graduate Student Alumni Engagement

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Although Sense of Belonging has long been an important construct in understanding student success in higher education, it has not been examined in the alumni context. In this article, we explore the association between graduate students’ Sense of Belonging and alumni engagement. We draw on an original data set (n = 1,601) that combines administrative records on alumni giving and data from a 2017 survey. Using multivariate analyses, we show that alumni with a stronger Sense of Belonging are more likely to give to their alma mater and to hold pro-philanthropic attitudes. Furthermore, Sense of Belonging is positively associated with other forms of alumni engagement and participation, including volunteering. Our findings highlight the need to examine the link between unintentional social interactions and alumni engagement and giving.

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Accruals Management to Avoid The Current Ratio Falling Below One: An Empirical Analysis Among Nonprofits

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. This study examines the distribution of the current ratio among large Belgian nonprofit organizations (NPOs). A current ratio falling below one signals (potential) liquidity problems among different types of stakeholders. Consistent with managerial intervention to avoid the current ratio falling below one, we observe significantly more (fewer) observations meeting or just exceeding (falling below) the threshold of one than would normally be expected. This discontinuity around one disappears when considering the distribution of the “pre-managed” current ratio (i.e., the current ratio corrected for abnormal working capital accruals). The latter observation is consistent with managerial intervention in the financial reporting process to avoid the current ratio falling below one. The aforementioned findings are supported by a multivariate regression model revealing significantly higher abnormal working capital accruals for observations having a current ratio equaling or exceeding one, but a pre-managed current ratio falling below one.

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The Relation Between Income and Donations as a Proportion of Income Revisited: Literature Review and Empirical Application

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Previous research addressing the relation between income and donations as a proportion of income has revealed predominantly inconsistent results. In this article, we argue that this can partly be explained by the great variance of methodological approaches. Providing a literature review covering 26 studies, we systematically identify how methodological issues such as data, variables, and methods have affected former findings. In addition, we apply different methodological approaches to Austrian income tax data (n = 20,000), demonstrating how different methods lead to a variation in results. Overall, we show that existing studies are hardly comparable as their designs vary strongly. We point out that it is particularly important to use samples with sufficient cases of all income groups and methods that adequately account for the non-linear relation between the two variables, not restricting it to a U-shape. Our findings enable a better understanding and interpretation of diverging findings in philanthropic research.

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Nonprofit Benchmarking With Data Envelopment Analysis

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Benchmarking nonprofit performance can be challenging, constraining the ways nonprofits can use operational data to learn from each other and highlight organizational progress. Valid output or outcome data are scarce, and there is much to learn about measuring performance even when these data are available. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a mathematical linear programming technique that can be used to measure performance in a way that not only produces valid efficiency scores but also allows for benchmarking nonprofits with similar service missions. Using financial and production data from the nonprofit transportation sector, we walk through an example to explore DEA as a tool to measure and benchmark nonprofits. We conclude with suggestions for practice, emphasizing that DEA is useful for stakeholders looking to benchmark nonprofits by underscoring production and performance.

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Dynamics of International Giving: How Heuristics Shape Individual Donor Preferences

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. State restrictions on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have become increasingly pervasive across the globe. Although this crackdown has been shown to have a negative impact on public funding flows, we know little about how it affects private philanthropy. How does information about crackdown abroad, as well as organizational attributes of nonprofits, affect individual donors’ willingness to donate internationally? Using a survey experiment, we find that learning about repressive NGO environments increases generosity in that already-likely donors are willing to donate substantially more to legally besieged nonprofits. This generosity persists when mediated by two organizational-level heuristics: NGO issue areas and main funding sources. We discuss the implications of our results on how nonprofits can use different framing appeals to increase fundraising at a time when traditional public donor funding to such organizations is decreasing.

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Activating Community Resilience: The Emergence of COVID-19 Funds Across the United States

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. This article draws upon concepts of community resilience to explore the antecedents of community philanthropic organizations’ response to COVID-19. Although the pandemic is a global threat, responses have been local. We test a model of community resilience activation in the context of the emergence of local COVID-19 funds. We find that a philanthropic organization’s capacity to act in a crisis and respond to the needs of the community depends on the stock of community capitals and organizational capacity. The importance of economic, cultural, and political factors in predicting the emergence of a fund raises important questions about disparities in resilience along class and race lines and the role of political ideology in shaping perceptions of crises. Our research contributes to our understanding of community philanthropic organizations’ capacity to activate community resources during a crisis.

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An Alternative Framing of Organ Donation Registration: The Collective Donor Behavioral Model

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Notwithstanding the prevalent use of donor registration prediction models grounded by the theory of planned behavior (TPB), registration behavior continues to remain low. A collective donor behavior (CDB) model underpinned by social exchange theory is introduced and its predictive ability is tested against a baseline TPB model using an online survey of adults (n = 1,055). Individuals who indicated they were not registered donors were contacted 3 months later to track their registration status. The CDB model was found to explain 45% of variance in registration intentions which was comparable in performance to TPB. Normative commitment was found to be strongly associated with registration intentions, and both institutional trust and trust in others fostered this commitment. The CDB model provides different insights on how to increase donor registration intentions. Namely, interventions need to facilitate individual positive experiences with institutions such as hospitals and strengthen social inclusion perceptions.

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Automated Coding Using Machine Learning and Remapping the U.S. Nonprofit Sector: A Guide and Benchmark

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. This research developed a machine learning classifier that reliably automates the coding process using the National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities as a schema and remapped the U.S. nonprofit sector. I achieved 90% overall accuracy for classifying the nonprofits into nine broad categories and 88% for classifying them into 25 major groups. The intercoder reliabilities between algorithms and human coders measured by kappa statistics are in the “almost perfect” range of .80 to 1.00. The results suggest that a state-of-the-art machine learning algorithm can approximate human coders and substantially improve researchers’ productivity. I also reassigned multiple category codes to more than 439,000 nonprofits and discovered a considerable amount of organizational activities that were previously ignored. The classifier is an essential methodological prerequisite for large-N and Big Data analyses, and the remapped U.S. nonprofit sector can serve as an important instrument for asking or reexamining fundamental questions of nonprofit studies. The working directory with all data sets, source codes, and historical versions are available on GitHub (https://github.com/ma-ji/npo_classifier).

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly | https://journals.sagepub.com/action/showFeed?ui=0&mi=ehikzz&ai=2b4&jc=nvsb&type=etoc&feed=rss  

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Are You Ready: Financial Management, Operating Reserves, and the Immediate Impact of COVID-19 on Nonprofits

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Scholars and practitioners have argued that effective financial management, particularly the development of operating reserves, can help nonprofits survive economic shocks. The COVID-19 pandemic, which has had a significant impact on the nonprofit sector, provides an opportunity to test whether nonprofits have followed that recommendation, and if so, whether nonprofits with operating reserves were better prepared for the pandemic. Using data from an original survey of more than 600 nonprofit human service and arts organizations, administered when most states had stay-at-home restrictions, we show that most nonprofits experienced an immediate impact on their programs and financing. Yet, those nonprofits with more reserves were less likely to reduce operating hours, lose staff, or experience difficulty acquiring supplies or vendor services. Our study provides rare empirical data on the benefits of operating reserves for nonprofits. Our results also confirm that arts and culture nonprofits were more severely affected than human service nonprofits.

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly | https://journals.sagepub.com/action/showFeed?ui=0&mi=ehikzz&ai=2b4&jc=nvsb&type=etoc&feed=rss  

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Businesses Venturing Into the Social Domain During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Motivation and Ability Perspective

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Many businesses have joined governments and nonprofit organizations to serve the social needs under the tremendous pressure of Covid-19. We propose that businesses that expanded into the social domain during the Covid-19 crisis differ significantly from each other and vary extensively in value creation. We extend the motivation and ability framework to derive a typology of businesses under this situation and conceptualize value creation behaviors in both a free market and a monopolistic market with the governments as the buyer.

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Civil Society and COVID in China: Responses in an Authoritarian Society

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. Can civil society play a useful role in response to a pandemic like COVID-19 in a one-party state? We explore that issue based on the role of civil society and philanthropy in responding to COVID in China, where a large and innovative—and restricted—civil society and philanthropy sector has developed. Our preliminary findings are that while restrictive policies toward civil society significantly limit the role that civil society organizations and philanthropy can have in response to the pandemic, civil society still shows strength and vitality in emergency service, funding, volunteering, mutual aid, in-kind donations, and even policy advocacy. While the prospects for civil society in China are uncertain because of political restrictions before and during the COVID crisis, civil society continues to build capacity and show its capabilities to Chinese citizens and its governance institutions.

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly | https://journals.sagepub.com/action/showFeed?ui=0&mi=ehikzz&ai=2b4&jc=nvsb&type=etoc&feed=rss  

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Leadership and Governance in Times of Crisis: A Balancing Act for Nonprofit Boards

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Ahead of Print. How has the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the roles of nonprofit boards? We reflect critically on the leadership and management activities of boards to understand the implications of the current crisis on governance. Employing a contingency approach to governance, we present a model of boards of directors’ leadership and management roles under four governance configurations as organizations navigate through the stages of the pandemic. We suggest that organizations with governance configurations that are more suited to predictable environments will generally experience greater shifts between management and leadership activities as they move through the stages of the COVID-19 crisis.

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